Python 解决中文写入Excel时抛异常的问题

近期接到业务部门需求,需将统计结果每日发送到业务部门,在调试python脚本的时候,导出的Excel标题为中文,总是抛出以下异常

Python中一般使用xlrd库来读取Excel文件,使用xlwt库来生成Excel文件,使用xlutils库复制和修改Excel文件。这三个库只支持到Excel2003。

Traceback (most recent call last): 
 File "totalpx.py", line 99, in <module> 
 export() 
 File "totalpx.py", line 54, in export 
 workbook.save(out_path) 
 File "/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/xlwt-1.2.0-py2.7.egg/xlwt/Workbook.py", line 710, in save 
 doc.save(filename_or_stream, self.get_biff_data()) 
 File "/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/xlwt-1.2.0-py2.7.egg/xlwt/Workbook.py", line 674, in get_biff_data 
 shared_str_table = self.__sst_rec() 
 File "/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/xlwt-1.2.0-py2.7.egg/xlwt/Workbook.py", line 636, in __sst_rec 
 return self.__sst.get_biff_record() 
 File "/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/xlwt-1.2.0-py2.7.egg/xlwt/BIFFRecords.py", line 77, in get_biff_record 
 self._add_to_sst(s) 
 File "/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/xlwt-1.2.0-py2.7.egg/xlwt/BIFFRecords.py", line 92, in _add_to_sst 
 u_str = upack2(s, self.encoding) 
 File "/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/xlwt-1.2.0-py2.7.egg/xlwt/UnicodeUtils.py", line 50, in upack2 
 us = unicode(s, encoding) 
UnicodeDecodeError: 'ascii' codec can't decode byte 0xe6 in position 0: ordinal not in range(128) 

python-excel主页地址:http://www.python-excel.org/

解决方法是,在创建workbook的时候设置字符集即可解决:

xlrd

地址:https://pypi.python.org/pypi/xlrd

github地址:https://github.com/python-excel/xlrd

打开excel文件,获取一个Book()对象:

import xlrd
book = xlrd.open_workbook("myfile.xls")

获取sheets数目:

>>> book.nsheets
3

获取sheets列表:

>>> book.sheets()
[<xlrd.sheet.Sheet object at 0x01A93970>, <xlrd.sheet.Sheet object at 0x01A93950>, <xlrd.sheet.Sheet object at 0x01A93E70>]

获取sheets name列表:

>>> book.sheet_names()
[u'Sheet1', u'Sheet2', u'Sheet3']

获取Book()中的Sheet:

sheet = book.sheets()[0]          #sheets返回一个sheet列表
sheet = book.sheet_by_index(0)    #通过索引顺序获取
sheet = book.sheet_by_name(u'Sheet1')#通过名称获取

获取行数,列数,名字:

>>> sheet.nrows
1002
>>> sheet.ncols
11
>>> sheet.name
u'Sheet1'

获取某行,某行值列表,某列,某列值列表:

sheet.row(i)
sheet.row_values(i)
sheet.col(i)
sheet.col_values(i)

获取单元格的值:

cell = sheet.cell(i,j)
cell_value = sheet.cell_value(i,j)
cell_value = sheet.cell(i,j).value

需要注意的是,用xlrd读取excel是不能对其进行操作的:xlrd.open_workbook()方法返回xlrd.Book类型,是只读的,不能对其进行操作。

xlrd读取Excel中的日期:

一个值为1984/5/30的单元格

>>> print sheet.cell(2,7)   #直接读取是个日期格式,读value会返回30832.0的值
xldate:30832.0
>>> xlrd.xldate_as_tuple(sheet.cell(2,7).value, 0)   #变为元祖,第二个参数有两种取值,0或者1,0是以1900-01-01为基准的日期,而1是1904-01-01为基准的日期。
(1984, 5, 30, 0, 0, 0)
>>> xlrd.xldate.xldate_as_datetime(sheet.cell(2,7).value, 1)
datetime.datetime(1988, 5, 31, 0, 0)
>>> xlrd.xldate.xldate_as_datetime(sheet.cell(2,7).value, 0)
datetime.datetime(1984, 5, 30, 0, 0)

workbook = xlwt.Workbook(encoding =
‘utf-8’)

xlwt

地址:http://pypi.python.org/pypi/xlwt,适用于python2.3-2.7

xlwt-future:https://pypi.python.org/pypi/xlwt-future/0.8.0,适用于Python
2.6-3.3

github地址:https://github.com/python-excel/xlwt

 创建一个Excel文件并创建一个Sheet:

from xlwt import *
book = Workbook()
sheet = book.add_sheet('Sheet1')
book.save('myExcel.xls')

Workbook类可以有encoding和style_compression参数。

encoding,设置字符编码,style_compression,表示是否压缩。这样设置:w =
Workbook(encoding=’utf-8′),就可以在excel中输出中文了。默认是ascii。

向sheet写入内容:

sheet.write(r, c, label=””, style=Style.default_style)

简单写入:

sheet.write(0, 0, label = 'Row 0, Column 0 Value')

设置格式写入:

font = xlwt.Font() # 字体
font.name = 'Times New Roman'
font.bold = True
font.underline = True
font.italic = True
style = xlwt.XFStyle() # 创建一个格式
style.font = font # 设置格式字体
sheet.write(1, 0, label = 'Formatted value', style) # Apply the Style to the Cell
book.save('myExcel.xls')

写入日期:

style = xlwt.XFStyle()
style.num_format_str = 'M/D/YY' # Other options: D-MMM-YY, D-MMM, MMM-YY, h:mm, h:mm:ss, h:mm, h:mm:ss, M/D/YY h:mm, mm:ss, [h]:mm:ss, mm:ss.0
sheet.write(0, 0, datetime.datetime.now(), style)

写入公式:

sheet.write(0, 0, 5) # Outputs 5
sheet.write(0, 1, 2) # Outputs 2
sheet.write(1, 0, xlwt.Formula('A1*B1')) # 输出 "10" (A1[5] * A2[2])
sheet.write(1, 1, xlwt.Formula('SUM(A1,B1)')) # 输出 "7" (A1[5] + A2[2])

写入链接:

sheet.write(0, 0, xlwt.Formula('HYPERLINK("http://www.google.com";"Google")')) #输出 "Google"链接到http://www.google.com

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注